A penstock is essentially an enclosure or trough or passage that provides an enclosed basin-like basin for receiving water, or a sluice which controls water flow. The word is derived from earlier types of watermills and mill ponds. The modern usage of the term was adopted from the British when they discovered the penstock system at an early date. Today it is still used widely in the United States, as well as many other countries around the world.
Penstocks differ greatly depending on the purpose for which they are used. In the case of wells, the main role of a penstock will be to provide a water-tight seal to the basin and allow the flow of water into a well. These pens will then act as filters for any sediments or other matter that may be found in the well. In sewage treatment plants, the pens are used as a means of controlling the spread of dirt and debris. It is also used as a way to collect and dispose of wastewater.
Penstocks have been designed to accommodate different sizes of pumps and tanks. They can be placed in various locations to allow for optimal distribution of water, while also allowing for proper ventilation of the basin. These days, penstocks can even be made of flexible plastic material to facilitate easy movement in and out of the basin.